The use of in vitro methods to assess UVA protection level derived from a successful, recognised technology that offered significant advantages (speed, reliability, reduced cost). These methods are also very much in line with current concerns from an ethical point of view. .
This successful technology resulted from work that began during the 90s. Australia and New Zealand were pioneers in the field, making in vitro compulsory for assessing UVA protection since 1998. Collaborative work began at the start of the new millennium under the aegis of Cosmetics Europe (formerly Colipa), and was later continued by ISO, culminating in 2012 in the publication of ISO standard 24443 (which is also a European standard).
This recognised technology is accepted throughout Europe and in most of the world. It is also recommended by professional organisations such as Cosmetics Europe and the FEBEA.
It is proving to be essential in countries such as the USA, Australia and New Zealand where there is no alternative to in vitro.